The welfare of animals such as seals, sea lions and jaguars is enhanced when improvements are made to their surroundings, a new study has found.

A number of universities took part in the study, including the University of Bolton Harper Adams University, Nottingham Trent University (NTU), and the University Lodz in Poland.

The researchers analysed data from previous studies, looking at the behaviour across dozens of species of carnivore and more than 200 individual animals.

They found that when animals were given additional enrichment, the time they spent being active increased significantly, from a quarter more to as much as four times more.

Lead researcher Dr Samantha Ward, a scientist at NTU’s school of Animal, Rural and Environmental Sciences, said: “Zoos have shown significant advancements in welfare provisioning in recent years and recognise the need for monitoring and improving welfare.

“This is the first study to quantify positive behaviours in zoo-housed carnivores and shows that positive welfare can be achieved if the appropriate husbandry is provided.”

According to the study, brown fur seals, Australian sea lions and jaguar were among the most active when provided with additional enrichment.

The researchers also found that interactions with enclosures, such as foraging, scratching, and climbing, increased with enclosure improvements – most significantly for sea lions, spectacled bears, and fishing cats.

Additionally, with the right enrichment, polar bears and Eurasian lynx became more playful as they got older, while red foxes and brown bears became more active with age.

Dr Ward added: “It provides a strong message about the importance and effectiveness of environmental enrichment not only in reducing negative or unwanted behaviours in zoo-housed carnivores, but also in promoting positive behaviours and optimising animal welfare.

“It is important to assess animal behaviour using positive and negative indicators for a more informed view of the viability of zoos in optimising the welfare of carnivores.

“This will help us to more reliably track progress in welfare.”

Carnivores (meat eaters) are often considered to be challenging to maintain with good welfare in zoos, and they are sometimes susceptible to behaviour indicative of poor welfare, such as pacing.

And some species show poor reproduction in captivity.

Activity, play and interaction with the environment are all considered to be measures of positive welfare in zoo-housed species.

The study is published in the journal Applied Animal Behaviour Science.

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