1651: Charles II, defeated by Cromwell at Worcester, fled to France, destitute and friendless.

1777: British commander General Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga in the American War of Independence.

1849: Frederic Chopin, Polish pianist and composer, died of tuberculosis in Paris, aged 39.

1860: The first professional golf tournament was held at Prestwick, Scotland, and won by Willie Park.

1899: British troops defeated the Boers at Glencoe.

1914: German U-boats raided Scapa Flow, main base of the British Fleet.

1931: Mobster Al Capone was jailed for 11 years for tax evasion.

1956: Calder Hall in Cumbria, Britain's first large-scale atomic energy station, was opened by The Queen.

1960: The News Chronicle newspaper ceased publication.

1991: Four ITV companies, TV-am, Thames, TVS and TSW lost their licences under changes announced by the Independent Television Commission.

On this day last year: America's House of Representatives was being closed after 29 workers tested positive for anthrax exposure and spores were found in a ventilation system.

BIRTHDAYS: Arthur Miller, playwright, 87; Harry Carpenter, sports commentator, 77; Ann Jones, former tennis player, 64; Evel Knievel, stuntman, 63; Jim Smith, football manager, 62; Margot Kidder, actress, 54; Dolph Lundgren, actor, 43; Ziggy Marley, reggae singer, 34; Anil Kumble, cricketer, 32; Eminem, rapper, 30; Wyclef Jean, rapper (Fugees), 30.