1399: The Order of the Bath was constituted.

1521: Pope Leo X conferred the title of Defender of the Faith on Henry VIII. Twelve years later Henry broke with Rome to marry Anne Boleyn.

1821: Sir George Williams, founder of the YMCA, was born in Dulverton, Somerset.

1844: Baked beans magnate HJ Heinz was born of German parents in Pittsburgh.

1899: The Boer War began between the British Empire and the Republics of the Orange Free State and the Transvaal.

1919: The first airline meals were served on a Handley-Page flight from London to Paris. They were pre-packed lunch boxes at 3 shillings each (15p).

1926: Children's Hour started on BBC Radio.

1956: A Test cricket slow-scoring record was set when Australia scored 80 and Pakistan 15 for the loss of two wickets in a full day's play in Karachi.

1957: The Radio telescope at Jodrell Bank, Cheshire, above, planned by Sir Bernard Lovell, went into operation.

1958: The BBC TV sports programme Grandstand was first transmitted.

On this day last year: Jo Moore, who as special adviser to Transport Secretary Stephen Byers, urged colleagues to "bury" bad news under cover of the US terror strikes still enjoyed the confidence of the Prime Minister, Downing Street insisted.

BIRTHDAYS: Sir Bobby Charlton, former footballer, 65; Sir Richard Wilson, Secretary of the Cabinet and Head of the Home Civil Service, 60; Alan Pascoe, former athlete, 55; Daryl Hall, singer, 53; Dawn French, actress and comedienne, 45; Luke Perry, actor, 37; Debbie McAndrew, actress, 35.